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How to Make a DIY Robot Vacuum Cleaner (Step by Step)

Published by: Katherine Frame

How to Make a DIY Robot Vacuum Cleaner

A robot vacuum is an automated machine that removes dirt from the floor. It uses automated sensors to monitor all the microbial dust. The DIY (Do It Yourself) Robot Vacuum Cleaner makes cleaning more straightforward and can be far more cost-efficient.

The design combines sweeping and mopping functions to help you clean your house or business efficiently.

This article will help you create the DIY robot vacuum cleaner by the step by step process.

Materials Required to Make a DIY Robot Vacuum Cleaner

To create your very own used DIY vacuum cleaner, we can assemble general components ensuring easy assembly and repair. One can locate everything you need at the electronic shops.

Here are the materials you’ll be required:

  • Switch
  • Perfboard 
  • Motor Wheels of the model- N20( 2 Piece)
  • MDF
  • Voltage Regulator(Model no-LM7805 ) 
  • L293D Motor Driver 
  • IR Module 
  • HC-SR04 Ultrasonic Module (3 Pieces)
  • A shell of portable cleaners
  • Castor Wheel
  • Arduino Pro Mini 
  • 7.4V Lithium-Ion Battery 
  • 5 Volt N20 Motors and Mounting Brackets(2 pieces)

Working on The Robot Vacuum Cleaner

A removable compartment stores everything a robot model acquires. The spinning brushes are attached to a couple of rolling brushes in many top robot vacuums. All these apparatus combined help the dirt go inwards and into the dirtbag.

The most significant difference between the vacuums is that the robot vacuum contains a microcontroller and sensors that allow it to make judgments and vacuum your space independently. 

In addition, most vacuum robots nowadays have some excellent algorithms built-in, such as the ability to map your area so that they can plan a course and clean faster. Other features include side brushes, collision detection, and the ability to return to its charging base.

Here’s a video on how you can make a DIY robot vacuum cleaner…

Accessories of the Robot Vacuum Cleaner

Here are all the accessories you need with the vacuum…

  • Main Brush β€” It is long-lasting and does not harm the ground. It can prevent the motor from overheating as a result of excessive tangling. The decent dust-removal design as well as hair separation features. The dust concentration in the center will be gathered up and sucked into the dust box as the machine rotates.
  • Side Brush β€” features a long brush body and a dead corner that is easy to touch. Clean and effective hair isolation is one of the features of the ability to prevent entanglement and readily collect dust.
  • Washable Filter β€” The washable filter maintains good filtration of dust particles, filtering up to 99 percent of them. They have a washable design that prevents secondary indoor air pollution.
  • The ultra-wide mop is made of ultra-fine fibers that are well-suited to the floor, and the barbed texture aids in dust removal.

The Layout of the Robot Vacuum

You need to connect and program three ultrasonic sensors to detect obstacles. As a result, all ultrasonic sensor grounds must be connected to a common ground. 

  • In addition, combine all three Vcc pins on the sensor with the standard VCC pin. You can use pins connected to the Arduino’s PWM pins. 
  • One also links the IR module’s VCC to 5V and ground to the Arduino’s ground pin, while the IR sensor module’s output pin is connected to the Arduino’s digital pin D2.
  • It uses 5-volt motors and links the two enable pins to 5 volts and the driver voltage pin. The modules, controller, and electric motors operate at 5 volts; any greater voltage may damage them.
  • So you will use a battery with 7.4 watts and an LM7805 voltage regulator to convert it to 5 volts, connect the vacuum cleaner to the primary circuit immediately.

Connection of the Motors, Terminals, And Sensors

  • To make the robot, start by drawing a radius of 8 cm with two circles on the MDF sheet. Create another process with 4 cm inside that circle to fit a cleaner onto it. 
  • You can then remove the circles. Cut and remove the necessary components for the path of the wheel part.
  • Make three tiny holes in the caster wheel at the end. 
  • Next is to mount the motors in the base of brackets provided and position and ensure that the whole castor wheel is secured. It ensures that there is mobility.
  • On the backside of the robot, connect the IR sensors. Include the exterior switch and ensure it is placed. All the sensors should then be placed in the robot’s every direction.
  • On the foam sheet, design and cut a circle with a radius of 11 cm for the top part. One can cut three 4 cm long pieces of plastic tube for the gap between the top and bottom halves.
  • One can attach the plastic spacers to the bottom part, followed by the top position. 
  • You can use plastic or other comparable materials to cover the bot’s side sections if you desire.

While working, follow safety precautions to avoid putting harm and damaging the electronics.

Assembly and Testing of the Robot Vacuum Cleaner

Check out the essential features of your vacuum cleaner

  • While buying a vacuum cleaner, make sure it has an entrance. Three horizontal sensors detect obstacles in front of the cleaner. More than one sensor is required to cover the entire width of the cleaner. 
  • The sensors pointed to the sides are used to detect the distance to a nearby obstruction. Three downward-pointing sensors identify impediments such as stairs or other high edges. The concept of turning the vacuum cleaner simply by stopping one wheel results in the cleaner’s design. 
  • A radius with its center in the halted wheel creates the form. After you’ve finished the circuit, put it to the test. 
  • When your battery is fully charged, use a Voltmeter to verify that the Vout is truly 5V; if not, adjust the potentiometer.

Programming The Robot

An Arduino Mega microprocessor controls the robot vacuum cleaner. C++ is the programming language used by the Arduino Mega. Because the Arduino Mega only has one CPU.

The software must stop for a few milliseconds for the stepper motor and the ultrasonic sensor to perform correctly. This means the stepper motor and the sensor can’t run simultaneously. 

As a result, the program must run the stepper motors and turn on the sensors regularly to identify any impediments or stairs in its path. Here’s a way to program the robot by reading the ebook.


Robotic vacuum cleaners are self-contained machines. We can clean more efficiently with a robot vacuum, and dust in some corners is also easier to remove. It is a handy tool in everyday life. You can try to build a simple vacuum cleaner to note how it works. 

The vacuum cleaner’s principle is to spin the motor at a fast speed to drive the fan to exhaust air from the mouth of the bottle to the outside of the bottle, establishing a negative pressure in the bottle and then generating suction at the cup’s mouth, sucking the dirt into the cup.


Which Container Box Could Be Used To Assemble The Vacuum Cleaner?

Most upright and canister cases are now made mostly of ABS polymers (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene), with steel and polycarbonates thrown in. Where more strength is required, other high-impact polymers are employed. ABS plastic is a good choice for large case designs that require a cost-effective, lightweight, and durable material.

Which Motor Should Be Preferably Used In Making This Vacuum Cleaner Robot?

Most vacuum cleaners employ a universal motor as the suction motor. The universal motor is a series DC motor that can work on AC and DC.

Photo of author

Article by:

Katherine Frame

Katherine Frame is a professional writer and reviewer who worked in higher education for eight years before working on The Hardware Hub. She has written for multiple home magazines and blogs.

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